Wired Learning: A Survey of Digital Technologies as Educational Tools

INTRODUCTION

We live in a digital society. In the U.S. people of all ages – teens and young adults especially – use technology in their daily lives. Between 70-80% of adults [1] and 93% of teens (ages 12 to 17) and young adults (ages 18 to 29) in the U.S. use the internet [2].

Bar graph of 2009 data showing the statistics of who uses is on the internet by age group.[3]

But our digital media use doesn’t stop at the internet. A huge portion of the U.S. population owns some kind of electronic “gadget.” 88% of adults [4] and 75% of teens [5] own a cell phone. 1 in 10 people in the U.S. now own an ebook reader [6]. Tablet computers are on the rise [7]. 80% of teens own some sort of gaming console and 51% own a portable gaming device [8]. It is growing increasingly rare to find anyone in the United States that isn’t wired in some way or another.

In addition, nearly three-quarters of teens and young adults have a profile on and use some sort of social networking site [9]. Facebook alone hosts over 901 million users, with 546 million of those being active on a daily basis [10].

It would be safe to assume, given these statistics, that technology and digital media was being used in every aspect of U.S. citizen’s lives. People, young people especially, find themselves engaging with at least some form of digital media on a consistent basis. They use technology to communicate, to find information, to entertain themselves, to play games, to consume content, to create content, to actively participate in the world around them, and most importantly, to learn.

However, a great deal of that learning isn’t going on inside of the classroom. As of fall 2008, the ratio of students to instructional computers with internet access was about 3 to 1 [11].  In 2009, only 40 percent of teachers reported using computers “often” during instructional time, and 10 percent claim to not use computers for instruction at all [12]. The statistics become bleaker when we look beyond computers to other technologies.

Table with data about the use of technology in public schools
Percent of public school teachers reporting how frequently they used various types of software and Internet sites for classroom preparation, instruction, or administrative tasks [13].

Percent of public school teachers reporting how frequently their students performed various activities using educational technology during their classes

Percent of public school teachers reporting how frequently their students performed various activities using educational technology during their classes [14].

In the majority of U.S. public schools, teachers are not taking full advantage of the technologies available to them. Part of this may be due to inadequate training. Only one-fourth of teachers gained any training as an undergraduate and only 33 percent as a graduate. 53 percent of teachers only spent 1 to 8 hours in professional development involving educational technology, while 13 percent spent none at all. Over three-fourths of public school teachers gained the majority of their understanding of how to effectively use educational technology for instruction independently [15].

Is this failure to effectively use technology in the classroom effecting education and our students’ futures? Possibly. In 2009 the dropout rate for students 16 through 24 years old in the United States was 8.1 percent. That percent jumps to 9.3 for Black students, 13.2 for American Indian or Alaskan Native students and 17.6 for Hispanic students [16]. Reports suggest that of those students who do graduate high school, only 25% are properly prepared for college [17]. Only 57% of students seeking a Bachelor’s degree will complete their requirements within 6 years [18]. Over half of recent college graduates are un- or underemployed [19].

Clearly something is not working with our educational system. Students today are disengaged from school and are unprepared for the modern workforce. This is in part due to the fact that there is a huge “digital divide” between student’s in-school and out of school use of technology [20].

As Larry Rosen stated in his book, Rewired: Understanding the iGeneration and the Way They Learn: 

“Education has not caught up with this new generation of tech-savvy children and teens. It is not that they don’t want to learn. They just learn differently. Gone are the days when students would sit quietly in class, reading a book or doing a math worksheet. Literally, their minds have changed – they have been “rewired.” With all the technology that they consume, they need more from education. The educational content is not the problem. It is the delivery method and the setting. Today’s youth thrive on multimedia, multitasking, social environments for every aspect of their lives except education” [21]

Today’s learners are learning all the time – outside of school. The problem comes when the ways in which they learn outside of school and the ways in which they are expected to learn in the classroom no longer align.

The second issue is the fact that schools are no longer teaching the right things. In 1996 the New London Group stated that “the fundamental purpose [of education] is to ensure that all students benefit from learning in ways that allow them to participate fully in public, community, [Creative] and economic life” [22]. In today’s world students require different skill sets. A good portion of those skill sets involve technology which isn’t being covered by the average school curriculum.

Obviously technology is not a panacea for all educational ills. As the failure of programs like the One Laptop per Child [23] program demonstrate, simply throwing technology at students will not achieve results. Instead technologies must be effectively utilized in order to bring about positive learning experiences.

The following content of this paper will give a brief and incomplete survey of the ways in which technology is currently being used for learning purposes in a number of different settings. These settings include:

  • Classroom use – Technology use within an otherwise traditional classroom setting
  • Online learning – or “eLearning.” A fully digital, online classroom experience
  • Blended learning course – which combine both classroom and online components
  • Independent learning – or learning completely separate from any formal educational institute

THE CURRENT USES OF TECHNOLOGY IN EDUCATION

Video

Using videos as an educational tool is hardly a recent phenomenon. People have been using videos for educational purposes for almost as long as there have been video and broadcast technologies.

For young children especially, television shows like Sesame Street, Mister Rogers Neighborhood, Reading Rainbow, School House Rock, Bill Nye the Science Guy and many more provide enriching educational entertainment both outside the classroom and in [24]. When brought into the classroom, they provide a counter balance to the grind of everyday activity. They can also be used to demonstrate ideas and scenarios that would otherwise be difficult to explain in the confines of a traditional classroom.

There is some debate over the effectiveness of video use, due to the perception of video as a passive medium. However, studies indicate that viewing is an active process that is “an ongoing and highly interconnected process of monitoring and comprehending” and “a complex, cognitive activity that develops and matures with the child’s development to promote learning” [25].

When presented correctly – within the right context and with the right content – videos can be extremely effective learning tools. Two-thirds of teachers who frequently used videos in their classrooms found that students learned more when TV and video was used and almost 70% found that student motivation increased. Video is especially effective because of its ability to address multiple forms of intelligence. Studies have also found that people remember 10% of what they read, 20% of what they hear, 30% of what they see and 50% of what they hear and see [26]. Video conveys information through both audio and visual means, thus making it a very powerful memory enhancing tool. In addition video is a prime medium for taking advantage of the educational potential of storytelling [27].

In-class use of video technology is a long established tradition. But with the advent of the world wide web video-based learning has taken on a new life.

Digital videos and web-based video sharing technologies such as youtube.com have allowed for a wide range of blended-learning opportunities. Teachers can use video lectures, either that they made or that were made by others to better utilize class time. One exceptional way that video can do this is the concept of the “flipped classroom.”

The flipped classroom is the idea of having students watch video lectures at home, instead of listening to lectures in the classroom, and then doing what would normally be considered “homework” during class. The benefits of this are many: students can go back and review lectures multiple times, they can pause the lecture to look things up, they can receive better feedback and support from teachers while completing problem sets.

One institution that has taken advantage of the idea of the “flipped classroom” is Khan Academy, which houses over 3000 videos on a multitude of subjects. Khan Academy can either be used by teachers in conjunction with their lesson plans, or by independent learners.

The flipped classroom in not a cure-all for education of course. Many practicians argue that simply flipping the classroom in not enough. “Anyone who blindly adopts ‘The Flipped Classroom’ (or inquiry, or lecturing, or unschooling, or whatever) model and never modifies it to meet the needs of his or her students will blindly lead his or her students into educational ruin,” states chemistry teacher Aaron Sams, who helped pioneer the use of the flipped classroom [28].

As mentioned above, Khan Academy services are not only used by formal educational institutions but also by independent learners. This is another advantage of educational videos online. There are numerous educational video sites available for free online that allow independent learners access to lectures and professional sources of knowledge they may never have dreamed of coming in contact with otherwise. Video sites like Big Think and TED make the world’s best and brightest available to the general public.

Speaking of the general public, sites like youtube have made it possible for anyone with access to video equipment and a computer to share their knowledge. One can search for practically anything and everything on youtube, from instructions on how to tie a tie, to how a particular piece of legislation will effect you. Like any open pool of knowledge, the results may at times be questionable, but the fact remains that youtube in invaluable source of public information.

The Online Classroom

Another possible use of technology in education is a complete online learning experience. This is when a class is handled completely over the web, with perhaps one or two “real world” gatherings.

Online classes are a fairly common phenomena at the post-secondary level of education. 96% of universities offer at least one online class. In 2010, 6.3 million students took at leas one online course offered by a post-secondary institution. It’s estimated that by 2014, 81% of post-secondary students will take some or all of their classes online [29].

In addition to offering courses for degree-earning students enrolled at their institutions, many universities now offer free online courses as well. Prestigious institutions such MIT, Yale, Stanford and Carnegie Mellon all offer various “open” course plans. Recently MIT and Harvard partnered together to launch EdX, a new open-source teaching and learning platform, the goal of which is to “open free courses to anyone willing to enroll, but also offer the platform to any institution wishing to host its own courses there” [30].

Popular services such as Apple’s iTunesU also makes it easy for educators at all levels to distribute their content online. Anyone with an iPhone can access courses such as “The New Psychology of Depression” from Oxford University or “What Defines Sexuality?” from The Open University (an institution founded in the U.K. that offers distance learning courses to over 250,000 students with more than 50,000 overseas. Many of their course are open access).

With such big names backing the shift to online classes, it’s hardly surprising the public k-12 schools are making the leap themselves. As of 2011 an estimated 250,000 U.S. students were enrolled in full-time virtual schools. In addition, more than 2 million k-12 students take at least one class online [31].

Part of the reason for the shift to online learning is cost-based. Schools can save an estimated 40% by going digital [32].

Other students have made the switch as the result of dissatisfaction with traditional public schooling. Advocates state that online can be better customized to each student’s needs and abilities. Some states, however, have found that students enrolled in only online classes have significantly lower standardized test scores and preform less well academically than their peers. There is also concern that the lack of face-to-face interaction with classmates results in students’ inability to socialize or participate in group discussions [33].

There are, however, quite a few reasons why virtual schools present a huge draw to some student. Students with mental and physical health problems that may effect their ability to attend a “real world” school, students enrolled in sports training or other programs that result in erratic schedules as well as students who wish to escape from bullies may find virtual school significantly easier to navigate. In addition, students, both at a k-12 and a post-secondary level, who find themselves stuck geographically unable to attend a school that meets their personal academic needs may find distance learning beneficial.

An alternative to a totally virtual school is a “hybrid school,” which utilizes blended-learning techniques. Hybrid schools such as Rocketship Education and Southwest Learning Centers have students spending a good portion of their time in computer labs, but also have classroom time with teachers and peers. Both schools have students receiving exceedingly high test scores [34].

Another option that almost any teacher can take advantage of is using Web 2.0 tools such as blogs, chatrooms and wikis to promote student interaction and activities outside of the classroom. Educators can take advantage of sites like Ning, Wikispaces, or WordPress or to create an online space for their students to continue discussion outside of the classroom. There are even sites like ThinkQuest specifically created for educational purposes. Educators can use these tools as “forums where students can draft and redraft work collaboratively, building on and modifying each other’s contributions in the light of feedback from peers, teachers or, on public wikis, the entire internet” [35].

This format can also be especially beneficially for students who don’t feel comfortable sharing their ideas in front of people. One teacher found that using online tools to facilitate discussion was incredibly empowering for a student of theirs who possessed a social anxiety disorder [36]. The online, written medium allowed this student, as well as many others, better articulate their thoughts and bring a whole new level to classroom discussions. It also helped better familiarize students with the use of Web 2.0 tools such as blogs and wikis, which can only be helpful in today’s world.

Social Networking, Online Communities and Collective Intelligence

Of course most teens and young adults already have some experiences with blogs, social networking sites and wikis. After all, an average of three-fourths of teens have an account on some kind of social networking site.

Bar graph showing the percent of teens online who use social networking sites[37]

What many do not realize is the educational potential of these kinds of networks and communities. Around 60 percent of students state that they use social networking sites to talk about education topics and more than half of students use them to talk about specific schoolwork [38].

Social networking sites are perhaps unique in the digital world because for the most part people interact with people they already know. People’s online “social network” is very often simply a digital extension of their already present “real world” social network. Most people have meet the majority of their facebook “friends” offline.

A pie graph showing that people mostly friend people they already know on facebook

[39]

This type of interaction can be incredibly beneficial for individuals seeking knowledge outside of formal education institutions. In fact, a significant amount of learning happens in informal setting and through social interactions [40]. However true strength of the internet lies in the ability to connect to people outside of your offline social sphere.

In a traditional school, students have access to their teachers and, if encouraged to participate in discussion sessions, their peers to learn from. The internet and digital media provides “ready access to many different sources of expertise” [41]. Blogs from field experts allow students ways to come in contact with people who’s work interests them. Online networking is an excellent way for students to connect to others with similar interests but different experiences [42].

In addition, online communities can provide amazing opportunities for learners. The Internet is filled with all kinds of different communities. For any possible interest one could think of – from programming to art – there is a community already in place to help members of that community learn and grow. Sites like livejournal encourage people to create and participate in discussions of everything from politics to popular culture. More general services like Yahoo! Answers or Wiki Answers allow inquisitive minds to crowd source the internet community in an effort to appease their curiosity (although this admittedly may get you less than satisfying results). Even the internet powerhouse of information, Wikipedia, while not a community in-and-of-itself per se, owes its existence to the contributions of the public. And it pays off – despite the arguments against it, Wikipedia has been found to be almost as accurate as the Encyclopedia Britannica, in addition to being more comprehensive and up-to-date [43].

These communities are usually interests-driven and often much more diverse than offline communities, and they are great tools for motivating learning. On the one hand, they take advantage of the fact that most of the drivers for self-motivated learning are not handed out by institutional authorities “ but from the kids observing and communicating with people engaged in the same interests and in the same struggles for status and recognition that they are” [44].

Communities are instrumental to learning and knowledge. Online communities serve as storehouse of the collective knowledge of all community participants, which all together is far more than any one person could possibly acquire [45].  “In a digital world, knowledge is, less than ever, an individual possession. It’s a property of the network” [46]. Some educators are already acknowledging this. In 2008, students at Presbyterian Ladies’ College in Sydney were allowed to use the internet and their phones during exams. One of the Deans explained that “in their working lives [the students] will never need to carry enormous amounts of information around in their heads. What they will need to do is access information from all their sources quickly and they will need to check the reliability of their information” [47].

In today’s world knowing something is less important than knowing how to utilize various networks, communities and resources to find that knowledge.

Games, Gamification and Simulations

Virtually all teens play games. 97% of U.S. teens ages 12-17 play computer, console, web browser or mobile games. About one-third of these teens play games every day and one in give play multiple times per week. There are some disparities across demographics – younger teens are more avid gamers, boys tend to play games for longer periods of time – but the fact of the matter is that most teens are playing games and half of those that play games do so any given day [48]. Worldwide, people spend around 3 billion hours a week playing video and computer games [49].

With games having such a pre-established widespread use in young people’s lives, it only makes sense for educators to take advantage of them for learning purposes. There are plenty of organizations that are currently looking into the learning potential of games, such as MIT’s The Education Arcade or the University of Wisconsin-Madison’s Games+Learning+Society group.

There are a few ways games can be used in the classroom. One is to use games that were originally created for educational purposes. Another is to repurpose games originally created for commercial purposes unrelated to education. A third is through “gamification,” or the use of game design elements in non-game contexts.

Educational games perhaps have gotten a bad rap. At their worst, educational ‘games’ are little more than interactive quizzes. However, companies such as E-Line and DimensionU are creating games to help create better learning environments both online and in the classroom. Other teachers take advantage off-the-shelf commercial games like Civilization and World of Warcraft to teach students things like collaboration, group management, strategy, societal development, diplomacy and how advances and technology effect society. Commercial games such as Brain Age, Professor Layton and the Curious Village and Phoenix Wright: Ace Attorney also highlight how learning games have mass market appeal.

There are many reasons that games have such amazing potential for educational purposes. Frequent game play increases ones ability to process information quickly, to determine what information is relevant and to process information from a range of sources at the same time. Game encourage “play” and experimentation when it comes to problem solving [50]. Other research has found that games improve communication, collaboration and problem-solving skills [51]. Games, and play in general, allow an individual the freedom to fail, experiment, fashion identities, interpret situations and be rewarded for their effort [52]. According to Will Wright, featured in the video below, games give you models of the world to experiment with, allow you to learn from you failures, allow for imagination and are goal-oriented.

There are obviously obstacles to getting games integrated into school curriculums. The customization of games as well as their variability makes them difficult to work with in a structured environment [53]. There are many skeptics who view games as “just for fun” and inherently violent. It may be difficult to locate games that can be applied the content being studied. Instructors who are unfamiliar with games may also find it difficult to take full advantage of their potential [54].

Gamification is another way that games are finding their way into schools. Gamification is the application of game design principles to non-game contexts. The goal of gamification is to make activities which may otherwise be dull and unexciting more fun and engaging. For example, one sixth grade teacher decided to turn his class room into an RPG (role-playing game) known as “ClassRealm.” The students earned “experience points” or “XP” for various participation activities, which resulted in an incredible surge in classroom participation and engagement [55].

Gamification is not always digital, although people seeking to “gamify” their educational experience may find may digital tools to assist them. At the forefront of the games in learning is the Institute of Play and their “school for digital kids,” Quest to Learn, which utilizes game-like learning to teach a generation of digital kids 21st century skills.

Creating a School That Teaches Through Games – Interview with Katie Salen (Video unable to be embedded).

Also related to games, and in fact often mistaken for games by the uninformed, are simulations. Simulations “recreate a modeled or modified version of a real world situation” [56]. They differ from games by not having a “win state.” Simulations provide opportunities that students may never otherwise experience, such as the ability to build a city or manipulate a molecule.

E-Books

Currently 21 percent of all U.S. adults have read an e-book in the past year, and 43 percent have read a book, magazine, journal or new article in a digital format, such as an e-book reader (41 percent of e-book readers), tablet computer (23 percent of e-book readers), regular computer (42 percent of e-book readers) or cell phone (29 percent of e-book readers). 89 percent of e-book readers state that they use e-book to do research, and 71 percent say they read e-book for work or school [57].

There are many reasons why e-books are gaining in popularity, especially in regards to textbooks. Some obvious ones are simple physical concerns. It’s much easier to carry around one e-reader, tablet, laptop or cell phone with all your textbook than it is to actually carry around all the physical books. 73 percent of people who read both printed books and e-books state that e-books are better for reading while on the move. E-books are also often easier to access, as you don’t need to go anywhere physically to purchase the book and there is relatively no wait to receive the book once purchased. 83 percent of e-book and printed book readers prefer e-books when trying to get a book quickly [58].

Another huge factor in the e-book vs. printed book debate is price. The average college student spends over $1,100 every year for textbooks [59]. There are still some issues regarding typical e-book pricing, but the digital era has been a golden age for “open” or free content. In an effort to make acquiring class materials more affordable, many educators are turning to “open education resources” or OER. Sites like ck12.org offer free textbooks for students and educators. It is significantly easier to obtain free electronic material than it is to obtain free physical materials.

In addition, the digital format allows for a great deal of potential beyond that of a traditional textbook. Ebooks on devices like the iPad – known specifically as iBooks – allow for the integration of other technologies. They can contain dynamic, moving content that can better illustrate certain ideas and simulations. Some aspects of the text book can contain audio. Others can be interactive. They also allow for editable and easily organized highlighting and annotating functions. Digital textbooks can also be much more easily updated, combating the habit of obsolescence in rapidly changing subjects. Apple also allows for people to create and publish their own iBooks, so teachers can customize their teaching materials.

While it is unlikely that ebooks will be completely replacing print books any time soon, the growth of ebooks, especially within an educational context, is assured.

Mobile Phones

Cell phones may be the most commonly owned digital device in the U.S. 88 percent of adults [60] and 75 percent of teens [61] own a cell phone. 46 percent of all phones owned by adults are smart phones – that’s 35 percent of all U.S. adults [62]. In addition, mobile computing is one of the leading factors in narrowing the “digital divide” between white and minority Americans [63]. This makes cell phones extremely fertile ground for exploring ways to connect to people normally ignored by the “digital revolution.”

Most school ban cell phones in the classroom. Many teachers view them as a distraction, and for good reason. In a poll of 2,000 tutors, 42 percent responded that texting and phone calls interrupted tutoring sessions regularly. However, the same poll found that 44 percent felt that cell phone use had no impact on their lessons, and 14 percent felt that cell phones were a great resource for students [64]. Many cell phones today are basically mini computers, and in turn offer many of the same benefits.

In addition, “apps” on smart phones (and tablet computers such as the iPad) are another great resource for students. Some apps offer games for learning certain subjects, while others offer tools to help students take control and organize their education.

Websites

Finally, the web as a whole is an amazing resource for learning. Popular search engines like google allow users to find information almost instantaneously. Most of the powers behind the web have already been discussed in this paper, but it’s important to note that individual websites can be successfully utilized for learning in a classroom or independently.

CONCLUSION

There are many reasons why technology is, and should be, an integral part of every individual’s education. People, young people especially, in the U.S. today exist in a world where “ digital and networked media are playing an increasingly central role” [65]. It is important for educators to understand the ways in which technology effects student’s lives and the way the learn. Different digital technologies allow students to collaborate, to access resources normally outside of their reach, and to be taught information and skills in a variety of ways. It is equally important, if not more so, that educators teach students the skills they will need in order to be successful in modern society. Literacy today means much more that simply being able to read and write. Students need to understand how to search, tag, participate, remix, use multimedia, and adapt to changing technology. Today, learning extends far outside the classroom. Digital technology, which still possessing many legitimate issues, is instrumental in allowing people to take control of their education and pursue learning on their own terms.

ENDNOTES

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  13. Ibid
  14. Ibid
  15. Ibid
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  18. “Fast Facts: Graduation Rates.” National Center for Education Statistics. Institute of Education Sciences. Web. 11 May 2012. <http://nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/display.asp?id=40>.
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  20. Itō, Mizuko. Hanging Out, Messing Around, and Geeking Out: Kids Living and Learning with New Media. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 2010. Print. Page 2
  21. Rosen, Larry D., Mark L. Carrier, and Nancy A. Cheever. Rewired: Understanding the IGeneration and the Way They Learn. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010. Print. Page 3
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  25. Marshall, J.M. (2002). Learning with technology: Evidence that technology can, and does, support learning. White paper prepared for Cable in the Classroom. Page 7
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  27. Marshall. Page 6
  28. Makice, Kevin. “Flipping the Classroom Requires More Than Video.” Wired. Wired, 13 Apr. 2012. Web. 11 May 2012. <http://www.wired.com/geekdad/2012/04/flipping-the-classroom/>.
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  32. The State of Digital Education Infographic.
  33. Banchero
  34. Ibid
  35. Pegrum, Mark. From Blogs to Bombs: The Future of Digital Technologies in Education. Crawley, W.A.: UWA Pub., 2009. Print. Page 30
  36. Klopfer, Eric, Scot Osterweil, Jennifer Groff and Jason Haas. “Using the Technology of Today in the Classroom” The Education Arcade (2009). Web. 11 Mar. 2012. <http://education.mit.edu/papers/GamesSimsSocNets_EdArcade.pdf> Page 12
  37. Lenhart, Amanda, Kristen Purcell, Aaron Smith, and Kathryn Zickuhr. Social Media and Young Adults. Rep. Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project, 3 Feb. 2010. Web. 11 May 2012. <http://pewinternet.org/Reports/2010/Social-Media-and-Young-Adults/Part-1/Demographics.aspx>.
  38. Klopfer
  39. Hampton, Keith, Lauren Sessions Goulet, Lee Rainie, and Kristen Purcell. Social Networking Sites and Our Lives. Rep. Pew Research Center, 16 June 2011. Web. 11 May 2012. <http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2011/Technology-and-social-networks.aspx>.
  40. Itō, page 21
  41. Collins, Allan, and Richard Halverson. Rethinking Education in the Age of Technology: The Digital Revolution and Schooling in America. New York: Teachers College, 2009. Print. Page 44
  42. Klopfer
  43. Pegrum, page 30
  44. Itō, page 22
  45. Klopfer, page 12
  46. Pegrum, page 28
  47. Ibid
  48. Lenhart, Amanda, Joseph Kahne, Ellen Middaugh, Alexandra Macgill, Chris Evans, and Jessica Vitak. Teens, Video Games and Civics. Rep. Pew Research Center, 16 Sept. 2008. Web. 11 May 2012. <http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2008/Teens-Video-Games-and-Civics.aspx>.
  49. The Gamification of Education Infographic. Digital image. Knewton. Knewton, Apr. 2012. Web. 11 May 2012. <http://www.knewton.com/gamification-education/>
  50. Jenkins, Henry, and Erin B. Reilly. “New Media Literacies” New Media Literacies. Web. 12 Mar. 2012. <http://newmedialiteracies.org/>.
  51. McFarlane, Angela, Anne Sparrowhawk, and Ysanne Heald. Report on the Educational Use of Games. Rep. TEEM. Web. 11 May 2012. <http://educationarcade.org/files/videos/conf2005/Angela%20MacFarlane-2.pdf>.
  52. Klopfer, Eric, Scot Osterweil, and Katie Salen. “Moving Learning Games Forward.” The Education Arcade (2009). Web. 11 Mar. 2012. <http://education.mit.edu/papers/MovingLearningGamesForward_EdArcade.pdf> Page 6
  53. Schell, Jesse. “Playing Games in the Classroom.” Interview by Andrew Dermont. Big Think. Big Think, 21 June 2010. Web. 11 Mar. 2012. <http://bigthink.com/users/jesseschell#!video_idea_id=21012>.
  54. Klopfer, Eric, Scot Osterweil, and Katie Salen. “Moving Learning Games Forward.” The Education Arcade (2009). Web. 11 Mar. 2012. <http://education.mit.edu/papers/MovingLearningGamesForward_EdArcade.pdf>
  55. Bertoli, Ben. “Samurai Yetis and Ninja Werewolves: How One Teacher Turned Sixth Grade Into an MMO.” Web log post. Kotaku. 4 Mar. 2012. Web. 11 May 2012. <http://kotaku.com/5890278/samurai-yetis-and-ninja-werewolves-how-one-teacher-turned-sixth-grade-into-an-mmo>.
  56. Klopfer, Eric, Scot Osterweil, Jennifer Groff and Jason Haas. “Using the Technology of Today in the Classroom” The Education Arcade (2009). Web. 11 Mar. 2012. <http://education.mit.edu/papers/GamesSimsSocNets_EdArcade.pdf> Page 12
  57. Rainie, Lee, Kathryn Zickuhr, Kristen Purcell, Mary Madden, and Joanna Brenner. The Rise of E-readin. Rep. Pew Research Center, 4 Apr. 2012. Web. 11 May 2012. <http://libraries.pewinternet.org/2012/04/04/the-rise-of-e-reading/>.
  58. Ibid
  59. Cargill, Sarah. “OER Brings Affordable Learning to More Students.” Web log post.Getting Smart. 2 May 2012. Web. 11 May 2012. <http://gettingsmart.com/edreformer/oer-brings-affordable-learning-to-more-students/>.
  60. “Device Ownership.” Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project. Pew Research Center, 2012. Web. 11 May 2012. <http://www.pewinternet.org/Trend-Data/Device-Ownership.aspx>.
  61. “Teen Gadget Ownership.” Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project. Pew Research Center, Sept. 2009. Web. 11 May 2012. <http://www.pewinternet.org/Static-Pages/Trend-Data-for-Teens/Teen-Gadget-Ownership.aspx>.
  62. Smith, Aaron. Smartphone Adoption and Usage. Rep. Pew Research Center, 11 July 2011. Web. <http://pewinternet.org/Reports/2011/Smartphones.aspx>.
  63. Poeter, Damon. “Pew: Mobile Helping Narrow Digital Divide, But Not For All.” PC. PC, 15 Apr. 2012. Web. 11 May 2012. <http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,2817,2403059,00.asp>.
  64. “Cell Phones in Education: Resource or Distraction?” Web log post. Cellular News. 13 June 2010. Web. <http://www.cellular-news.com/story/43769.php>.
  65. Itō, page 51

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